Uganda is likely one of the youngest international locations on the planet, with an average age of 15.9 years. Younger folks elderly under 30 make up about 77% of the rustic’s inhabitants of 47 million folks.
Younger folks have respectable and wide-ranging grievances, from unemployment to disenfranchisement. Alternatives stay restricted, with two-thirds of Ugandans running for themselves or doing family-based agricultural paintings.
But, younger folks in Uganda haven’t coalesced as an electoral bloc. That is in spite of the emergence of a presidential candidate who champions early life problems. Within the remaining presidential election in 2021, the ones elderly between 18 and 30 made up 41% of the full voter roll of 18 million.
Robert Kyagulanyi, the 41-year-old musician-turned-politician popularly referred to as Bobi Wine, leads the Nationwide Cohesion Platform. It’s Uganda’s greatest opposition occasion, recognized for its youth appeal.
Bobi Wine’s run at the presidency in the 2021 election highlights the truth that shooting the early life vote in Uganda is advanced. And that this extensive class and the function it performs in Ugandan politics is poorly understood.
As it’s, the time period “early life” lacks a transparent definition. Uganda’s govt defines the early life as the ones elderly between 18 and 30. On the other hand, in follow the “early life” class is a lot more amorphous. It has a tendency to encompass those that are not thought to be kids, however haven’t but realised the “social markers” that symbolize maturity. Those come with monetary independence, marriage and kids.
The result of the 2021 elections defied expectancies, given Uganda’s large and underemployed youth population and the emergence of Bobi Wine. In a up to date paper, we tested early life political mobilisation on this election.
In spite of common “early life wave” optimism, we recognized various, embedded methods and techniques from the ruling occasion, the National Resistance Movement, that obstructed Bobi Wine’s efforts to construct an impressive nationwide early life constituency.
The methods had been:
the structural seize of minor illustration in Ugandan politics
various financial incentives for political loyalty within the type of mortgage schemes, grants and non permanent employment
well-spun political narratives that draw on entrenched perspectives of minor as beholden to their elders and the state.
New wine, outdated bottles
When Bobi Wine ran within the presidential election, he used to be elderly 38. Commentators international urged his candidacy represented a real and unprecedented threat to Yoweri Museveni’s longstanding rule. Museveni, 79, has been Uganda’s president since 1986.
For a brand new entrant at the political scene, this used to be an outstanding fulfillment – specifically within the gentle of political repression and patronage that make the playing field far from fair in Uganda.
Bobi Wine’s violent arrest in November 2020 received global consideration, as did the federal government’s competitive reaction to protests calling for his free up. Those resulted within the death of at least 54 National Unity Platform supporters. Safety forces perpetrated widespread violence and human rights abuses within the run-up to the election.
At the eve of the election, the federal government ordered a five-day internet shutdown. There have been additionally reports of the ruling occasion allotting cash to doable citizens, with directions to vote for Museveni.
Our research reviewed Ugandan historical past since its independence from the British in 1962. We discovered that the opportunity of a countrywide early life constituency were a priority of Uganda’s post-colonial governments. Regimes have lengthy sought to combine the early life into their political undertaking, whilst preserving them fragmented and domestically embedded to stop broader political mobilisation.
Recent techniques utilized by the ruling occasion to co-opt the early life converge with those traditionally rooted strategies of regime consolidation.
Splitting the early life
The Nationwide Resistance Motion has an elaborate set of measures in position –from state stage to the villages – to stop early life discontent from turning into a countrywide political risk.
First, the early life are organised right into a “particular pastime workforce” reinforced through quota systems. Those are intently allied with the ruling occasion’s management. Political constructions, equivalent to early life MPs and representatives, soak up early life illustration beneath regime authority and entrench regional divisions.
2d, the ruling occasion makes use of patronage networks and techniques to mobilise younger citizens. It gives financial rewards for allegiance and beneficiant subject material repayment for “party-switching” – which is when supporters defect from the opposition to the Nationwide Resistance Motion, steadily fairly publicly. Forward of the 2021 election, Museveni gave state appointments to popular musicians with wide youth appeal who were running intently with Bobi Wine’s occasion.
The ruling occasion additionally gives younger folks economic incentives all through campaigns. Those come with non permanent employment, loans and money handouts. Formative years are steadily recruited as election staff, particular police constables and crime preventers. In those non permanent positions, tens of hundreds of minor survey their communities and percentage native intelligence with the government, appearing because the state’s eyes and ears at a village stage. Amongst younger, economically precarious males, that is observed as an opportunity, although they change into engaged in supporting the re-election of a regime they are going to oppose.
3rd, all through the remaining election, marketing campaign observers had been positive in regards to the energy of social media to enlarge Bobi Wine’s message and build up beef up. However social media could also be a device the Nationwide Resistance Motion makes use of adeptly. Past web shutdowns and disinformation campaigns, we discovered that Museveni and the Nationwide Resistance Motion used social media channels to advertise tough narratives that connected social order and prosperity to a tradition of gerontocracy. This refers to a device of governance through which older folks dominate.
What hope for Bobi Wine?
Neatly-developed constructions, practices and narratives that fragment nationwide early life mobilisation had been observed in fresh Ugandan historical past. In northern Uganda, as an example, younger folks have lived thru a up to date historical past of devastating conflict and nonetheless combat with its legacies.
This, blended with long-standing regional and ethnic tensions all over the rustic, signifies that his fighters steadily describe Bobi Wine first as a political agitator who may tear the rustic aside, no longer because the early life’s best possible probability for political liberation and progress.
By contrast backdrop, if Bobi Wine contests in 2026, he’s prone to combat once more. He might draw in world media consideration, however Museveni and the Nationwide Resistance Motion are conversant in his emblem of “defiance-based” opposition politics.
As commentators an increasing number of be aware, the massive query stays whether or not Bobi Wine and the Nationwide Cohesion Platform, with out revel in in govt and within the absence of robust hyperlinks to tough army and state gamers, can realistically succeed in a political transition in Uganda.
The whole image is one through which the elite have lengthy observed the early life as a very powerful useful resource and doable risk – and as such worry and price them. Whilst Uganda’s younger folks have actual and bonafide grievances, they lack modes of political and social organisation – via long-standing design.
Arthur Owor, the director for analysis and operations on the Centre for African Analysis, is a co-author of this newsletter.