The Oromo are the most important ethno-national staff in Ethiopia, accounting for over 40 million people or greater than one-third of the population. On the other hand, they have got been politically oppressed, economically exploited and culturally marginalised under successive Ethiopian regimes. For the reason that Sixties, the Oromo have sought self-determination thru more than a few types of resistance, reminiscent of armed fight underneath the banner of the Oromo Liberation Front.
Track has performed a key position within the Oromo resistance motion. As is the case in lots of different societies – particularly the ones the place open political debate is dangerous – song serves as an software of defiance, permitting artists and their fanatics to get up towards dominant socio-economic, cultural and political forces. From mythical musicians to newbie singers, Oromo artists have used protest songs as a part of their fight for freedom, justice and equality.
Hachalu Hundessa (additionally written within the Oromo language as Haacaaluu Hundeessaa) was once a kind of musicians. Thru his poetically eloquent protest songs, the younger singer-songwriter got here to constitute the Oromo fight. Then, in June 2020, he was once murdered. 3 males were convicted for the crime a yr later, however no reason was once given. Many consider it was once a political assassination.
Loads of 1000’s of younger other folks throughout Oromia, Ethiopia’s greatest regional state, took to the streets in protest, tough justice for Hachalu. Individuals of Oromia’s massive diaspora additionally staged protests in US and Eu towns. The Ethiopian executive used the protests and resulting violence (reports on the time instructed that more than 80 people had been killed) to justify its crackdown on Oromo opposition political events.
As a political geographer, I focal point at the struggles of the dispossessed and their covert and overt types of resistance – one in every of which is protest songs. After his dying, I studied 3 of Hachalu’s works: Maalan Jira! (Do I even exist!), Jirra! (We’re nonetheless there/alive!) and Jirtuu? (Are you there?). My passion is going past mere scholarly research; there may be emotional attachment there, too. I used to be a part of the Qubee Generation, the adolescence cohort that spearheaded the 2014-2018 Oromo protest motion to which Hachalu’s songs added inspirational impetus.
In the resulting paper, I display how Oromo protest song like Hachalu’s finds a historical past and geography of violence thru land dispossession and political persecution. It’s also greater than only a file of occasions in time and house: protest song forges collective identification and spurs political actions. I additionally try to appreciate what a musician like Hachalu Hundessa represents – and what it method to break a frame that embodies the facility of resistance.
3 key songs
Hachalu Hundessa was once born in Ambo The city, some 120 kilometres to the west of the capital town, Addis Ababa, in 1984. He was once lively in Oromo pupil actions when he was once at secondary faculty and was once imprisoned via the federal government when he was once simply 17 years outdated, spending 5 years at the back of bars as a result of his activism. Whilst in jail he labored on his first album, Sanyii Mootii. It was once launched in 2009 and straight away made him well-liked.
The primary track I analysed was once Maalan Jira! (Do I even exist!), the name monitor from his 2015 album. He tells of the occupation of Finfinne (what’s nowadays Addis Ababa) within the Eighteen Eighties that dispossessed the Tulama Oromo clans, displaced them from their ancestral houses and sacred puts and dismantled their social establishments.
He’s taking the listener or viewer thru a psychological map of historical past. The lyrics may also be considered as a fight to dismantle establishments and discourses of settler-colonial techniques lengthy imposed via the Ethiopian state upon the Oromo. The homicide of Hachalu, then, may also be interpreted as an try at silencing counter-histories in Ethiopia.
The second one track in my paper, Jirra! (We’re nonetheless alive!), was once launched in October 2017, when the Oromo protest motion was once at its top. He underscores the dedication of the Oromo, finding the resistance in bodily puts. He does this via naming puts the place the motion had a powerful presence, articulating the convergence of various corners of Oromia in opposition to the function: liberation.
The 3rd track, Jirtuu? (Are you there?) once more exposes the historic occasions associated with land dispossession and political oppression. At a reside efficiency in December 2017, all through a fundraiser in Bole for Oromos displaced via clashes with the neighbouring Somali region that yr, he requested the gang: “The place are you?”, then inspired them: “Say we’re in Bole!” The group cheerfully echoed his commentary.
This was once now not only a singalong. Bole is a district of Addis Ababa, house to rich individuals who settled on land expropriated from Oromo farmers. The efficiency was once a declaration of the Oromos’ proper to self-determination and a decision that they will have to at some point regulate the Imperial Palace – the workplaces and place of abode of the Ethiopian top minister.
The lyrics come with:
Kaafadhu farda keetiin loli, Arat Kiiloof situu aane (Combat along with your horse, you deserve Arat Kilo – the nationwide palace); Kaafadhu Eeboo keetiin loli, Arat Kiiloof situu aane (Combat along with your spear, you deserve Arat Kilo)
Why this issues
My research finds the facility of Hachalu’s protest songs in unsettling dominant narratives and establishments, and in serving as a powerful software of the Oromos’ political and social actions.
His song intertwines time, house and identification. It renders the reconstruction of the previous and imaginations of the longer term amid fresh uncertainties. In doing so, song serves as an archival library of the previous, a platform of the current, and a replicate of the longer term.